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Women And Latin Boy.rar

The Rarámuri language belongs to the Uto-Aztecan family. Although it is in decline under pressure from Spanish, it is still widely spoken. In the Rarámuri language, the endonymic term rarámuri refers specifically to the men; women are referred to as mukí (individually), and as omugí or igómale (collectively).

Women and latin boy.rar

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Their long-distance running tradition also has ceremonial and competitive aspects. Often, men kick wooden balls as they run in "foot throwing", rarajipari, competitions, and women use a stick and hoop. The foot-throwing races are relays where the balls are kicked by the runners and relayed to the next runner while teammates run ahead to the next relay point. These races can last anywhere from a few hours to a couple of days without a break.[18]

Division of Labor. The Tarahumara divide most work into male or female tasks, but when the need arises both men and women perform basic household chores associated with the opposite gender. Women tend to prepare the food, care for the children and livestock, weave, and make pottery; men undertake most of the horticultural work, construct houses, cut and haul firewood, and carve. Men are the principal political officials and are also more prominent than women in wage labor for non-Indians and in ritual activities, including curing.

Land Tenure. Most Tarahumara live in ejidos, communal landholding units created as part of the agrarian-reform program of the Mexican Revolution. Land tenure is ultimately subject to ejido rules but tends to conform to traditional practices. Both men and women own fields individually, which they exchange, sell, lend, and transmit to their heirs. Usufruct applies to abandoned fields and uncultivated lands. Reforms to the Mexican constitution in 1992 allow ejido holdings to be converted to private property and sold to non-ejido members, potentially jeopardizing Tarahumara control of their lands.

Marriage. People who share a lineal ancestor theoretically cannot marry, but in practice this prohibition usually extends only to second cousins because genealogical connections seldom are remembered beyond three generations. Many marriages are arranged, often by special marriage officials; only the Tarahumara most influenced by Jesuit missionaries are married by Catholic priests. Because interaction between unrelated men and women is discouraged, young people often marry several times, until they find compatible spouses, after which their marriages are stable. Polygyny occurs but is rare. Young newlyweds usually move between their natal households until they are economically independent.

Social Organization. The basic unit of social organization is the household. Neighboring households cooperate in the performance of rituals and in work projects such as planting and harvesting maize. Sponsoring households usually serve maize beer in conjunction with such activities. Households also share an affiliation with a pueblo, an organizational unit established by Catholic missionaries in the Spanish colonial period. Tarahumara society is egalitarian. There are variations in the amount of land and livestock individuals own, but wealth does not translate into political power, and redistributive mechanisms preclude the development of class divisions. Men and women are regarded as complementary equals.

By the time he made this date, Corea had worked his way through a heavy avant-garde phase and out onto the sunlit plains of his own latin-based musical imagination. It had always been there in his music, but now, marrying the élan and high spirits of Flora Purim and Airto with his own naturally ebullient and melodically uplifting inclinations, Corea suddenly not only stepped forward himself past the stentorian gloom and machismo of the other fusioneers of the day, but redefined exactly what latin jazz should be about. Intoxicating music played by masters makes this an era-defining milestone. (KS)

Great strides have been made to reduce the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths, but the war against HIV is far from over. From 1981 to the present, human immunodeficiency virus, the etiological agent of AIDS, has unwaveringly killed an estimated 39 million individuals (Mehta and Fawzi, 2007; WHO 2014c; UNAIDS, 2013). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become more affordable and accessible in recent years, allowing those infected with HIV to obtain this life-saving treatment. Nevertheless, patients still suffer immune dysfunction and are at high risk for opportunistic infections. Nutrition in the form of vitamin supplementation has been shown to improve host immune response and post-treatment status. Additionally, vitamin supplementation enhances the quality of life for those battling HIV-associated morbidities, both physically in terms of improved body mass index (BMI) and immune markers and psychologically by improving symptoms of depression. Nutritional status and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, as well as B-complex, C, D, and E vitamins, modulate the pathogenesis of HIV infection and AIDS progression in infected adults, pregnant or postpartum women, and children. Including vitamin A as an adjuvant in HIV vaccines for HIV transgenic rat models (Yu and Vajdy, 2011) has also shown promising results. What is yet to be determined is the particular combination of supplement composition and dosage for each target population that will yield the greatest prevention and treatment benefits; evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials is contradictory. This chapter presents an overview of recent studies that have focused on nutrition, with an emphasis on vitamin A, in individuals with HIV/AIDS.

It is well established that vitamin A supplementation improves growth and reduces morbidity in HIV-infected children (Villamor et al., 2002; Ndeezi et al., 2010; Kaio et al., 2013). Adults also benefit from supplementation of vitamin A, including decreased mortality in advanced AIDS patients (Austin et al., 2006). However, vitamin A supplementation is not recommended for pregnant women or lactating mothers, despite findings from observational studies showing that low vitamin A status increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Supplementation can also increase the risk of MTCT (Fawzi et al., 2002). One mechanism to explain this counterintuitive finding is that vitamin A supplementation appears to cause increased viral shedding in breast milk and higher prevalence of mastitis, leading to vertical transmission from mother to breastfeeding infant (Baeten et al., 2002; Kantarci et al., 2007; Villamor et al., 2010). Additionally, the HIV genome contains retinoic acid receptors, by which vitamin A may stimulate transcription and replication of the virus. Vitamin A may also increase the expression of CCR5 receptors on monocytes/macrophages, which would increase the susceptibility of cells to HIV infection (Webb et al., 2011). The findings from cross-sectional studies may be explained by the acute phase response, a process that causes the body to blockade nutrients (such as vitamin A and iron) deep in storage tissue to hypothetically prevent the utilization of nutrients by pathogens (Zvandasara et al., 2006). Additionally, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α stimulate the movement and storage of iron into macrophages during the acute phase response (WHO and CDC, 2007). The resulting effect is lowered retinol-binding protein levels, and thus lower serum retinol status, which would explain why low vitamin A status is found among HIV patients and also found to increase transmission from mother to child (Mehta and Fawzi, 2007).

It is well established from cross-sectional analyses that HIV-infected patients have suboptimal vitamin A concentrations in comparison to healthy populations (Kassu et al., 2007; Papathakis et al., 2007; Fufa et al., 2009; Mehta et al., 2011; Mulu et al., 2011; Obuseh et al., 2011; Loignon et al., 2012; Machado et al., 2013; Monteiro et al., 2014). Increasingly, observational studies focus on vitamin A status as a predictor of a range of outcomes, including HIV-related morbidity measurements, gynecological infections among HIV-infected women, metabolic syndrome symptoms among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, and mortality among HIV-infected children. Additionally, research in susceptibility to HIV at the genetic level has pinpointed polymorphisms that increase the risk of HIV infection, and one such study (Kuhn et al., 2006) that takes nutritional status into account is described in this section. Table 1.2 provides a summary of these studies.

Several studies analyzed data on pregnant or postpartum women with and without HIV from trials conducted in Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies [ZVITAMBO] trial study group) and in Tanzania (Fawzi et al., 2007). The ZVITAMBO trial enrolled a total 14,110 mother-neonate pairs, wherein both mother and infant, mother only, infant only, or neither mother nor infant received vitamin A supplementation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design (Humphrey et al., 2006). A single dose of 41,880 μmol/L vitamin A or placebo given within 96 hours postpartum had no significant impact on HIV incidence in HIV-negative mothers, but those with low baseline serum retinol levels were 10.4 (95% CI, 3.00-36.28) times more likely to sexually acquire HIV during the postpartum year. More details can be found in a previous review (Mehta and Fawzi, 2007). In another study based on this cohort, no effect on HIV-positive or HIV-negative maternal mortality or morbidity was seen, and in HIV-positive women serum retinol increased only among those with a CD4+ cell count less than 200 x 106 cells/L (Zvandasara et al., 2006). Both studies attribute the lack of effect to the fact that just 9% of the HIV-negative women were vitamin-A deficient at baseline. The ZVITAMBO trial results give further evidence that HIV alters metabolism, causing vitamin A deficiency that may not be necessarily corrected by supplementation. 041b061a72


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